Требование овощных растений к элементам питания

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Февраль 12, 2012

Для роста и развития овощных растений большое значение имеет не только количество необходимых ему полезных веществ, но и правильное, сбалансированное соотношение элементов питания. Одностороннее внесение, например, азотных удобрений вызывает усиленный рост вегетативных органов и задерживает плодоношение овощных культур, а при недостатке других элементов питания растения плохо развиваются и дают низкий урожай.

Нормальный процесс поглощения питательных веществ корневой системой овощных растений может быть нарушен при недостатке влаги и воздуха в почве (почвенная корка), при понижении температуры, при избыточном внесении минеральных удобрений.

Отдельные овощные растения резко отличаются по требовательности к питательным веществам. Так, редис и зеленные овощи за короткий период вегетации при густом стоянии растений, а также рассада овощных культур выносят большое количество питательных веществ, и в этот период их необходимо подкармливать. Лук за четыре месяца жизни выносит в 2 раза больше питательных веществ, чем редис за месяц вегетации, и поэтому также отличается повышенной требовательностью к удобрениям, но преимущественно к органическим, так как не выносит высокой концентрации почвенного раствора в начале роста, так же как и морковь.

Источниками азота для овощных растений помимо почвы и органических удобрений являются сульфат аммония (содержит 21% азота), натриевая и кальциевая селитра (15-16% азота), калийная селитра (14% азота и 47% калия) и мочевина (46% азота), особенно эффективная на легких почвах при орошении, где она быстро превращается в углекислый аммоний, легко усваивается растениями.

Аммиачные удобрения физиологически кислые, поэтому для нейтрализации их следует смешивать с известью или мелом, но во избежание потерь азота такое смешивание надо делать непосредственно перед внесением удобрений в почву. На 1 кг сульфата аммония нужно добавить 1,2 кг извести или мела, па 1 кг мочевины – 0,8 кг. Особенно важно нейтрализовать эти удобрения перед внесением их в супесчаные почвы, так как они подкисляются быстрее других почв.

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